Nisyros is one of the newest major volcanic centers in Greece and is included in active volcanoes along with Methana, Milos and Santorini. The oldest rocks are 160,000 years old, while the newer 15,000 years old cover the entire island.
In 1872 an explosion accompanied by earthquakes took place. Ash and other materials covered the area of Rammos. In 1873 another explosion created a crater about 7 meters in diameter. Inside the caldera is the largest hydrothermal crater in the world, Stephanos, which has a diameter of 300 meters and a depth of 27 meters. Nisyros has 5 craters in total.
The various types of rocks have been used to construct buildings such as Palaiokastro and the bell tower of Saint John church outside Nikia.
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